Dec 20, 2014 contd further, as the length increases, diameter decreases. Explore strain gauge with free download of seminar report and ppt in pdf and doc format. Study of the strain and stress in a bending system. A strain gauge with a gauge factor gf 2 will exhibit a change in electrical resistance of only 2500. It operates on the principle, discovered by the british physicist william thompson later lord kelvin in 1856, that the electrical resistance of a copper or iron wire changes when the wire. Strain gages are used to measure linear strains that occur at surface points of an object when it responds to some actuating load, as. Elastic stressstrain uniaxial mechanical behavior relations. Hi friends, in this article, i am going to describe you strain gauge working principle, gauge factor and strain gauge load cell working. The input and output relationship of the strain gauges can be expressed by the term gauge factor or gauge gradient, which is defined as the. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive.
A strain gauge sometimes refered to as a strain gage is a sensor whose resistance varies with applied force. In this clip we will discuss that how does a strain gauge works. Calculation of the mechanical deformations under torsion, tension and bending. The change in the resistance of a wire is directly proportional to axial sensitivity of the. Electrical resistance strain gages are sensors made of thin foil or wiretype conductors that respond to variations in length with variations in electrical resistance. Resistance type strain gauges like this were invented in 1938 by mit professor arthur ruge 19052000 to help with earthquake detection. Common measurement setups normally consist of strain gauges for. For example, the piezoresistive strain gauge is a semiconductor device whose resistance varies nonlinearly with strain. The second effect is the overall electrical resistance of the wire. Thus strain gauges can be used to measure force and related parameters like displacement and stress. Principle of strain gages the strain gage is tightly bonded to a measuring object so that the sensing element metallic resistive foil may elongate or contract according to the strain borne by the measuring object.
The strain gauges are based on the resistive properties of the metal. Electrical resistance strain gages can be used with this resolution and with an accuracy varying from numbers as low as 1% to as high as 0. Some configurations produce different strain in different gauges, and allowance must be made. The range comprises strain gages with a nominal resistance of 120, 350, 600, and 700 ohms. As can be seen in figure 4 it is actually a three wire configuration. The circuit diagram shows that the cable resistance is added twice feed and return to the strain gauge resistance this affects both the bridges zero point and its sensitivity. The principal of electrical resistance gauge is based on the fact that a change in electrical resistance is proportional to the strain, i. When environmental temperature changes, the resistance of the strain gauge changes accordingly. St350 dynamic strain transducer 41004150 series vibrating wire spotweldable strain gauges.
Due to the correct fit to the material being examined, the strain gauge is. A strain gage sometimes refered to as a strain gauge is a sensor whose resistance varies with applied force. A strain gauge takes advantage of the physical property of electrical conductance and its dependence on the conductors geometry. Ris the resistance change due to strain,r is the initial resistance. As in the case of the strain sensitive alloy, the backing is not completely an independently specifiable parameter. This type of strain gauge allows the measurement of axial load on bolt elements. The strain gauge factor derivation is an example of a passive transducer that uses the variation in electrical resistance in wires to sense the strain produced by a force on the wires. Alternatively, strain gauge conductors may be thin strips of metallic film deposited on a nonconducting substrate material called the carrier.
This requires attaching the strain gauge rx in the direction of interest and then attaching the remaining strain gauges, r2, r3 and r4, perpendicular to this. This phenomenon is called the strain gauges thermal output. Shunt calibration across each dummy resistor to simulate. Upon stretching, the metal material loses or increases its electrical resistance. A thin plastic base supports thin ribbons of metal, joined in a zigzag to form one long electrically conductive strip. Since this method is carried out rather simply, it has a. Performance characteristics of metallic resistance strain gauges, vol. Rr is function of electrical resistance gauge consists of a thin wire grid, fixed on foil usually paper. In this classic experiment he established three vital facts which have greatly aided the electrical resistance strain gauge. Bridge measuring circuits in the strain gauge sensor configuration 79 resistors in the bridge, this bridge configuration is called a quarterbridge fig. Strain gages are invaluable for evaluating not only airplane frames, but also automobiles, bridges, and buildings. The gauge factor of a strain gauge is given be the equation. Strain gauge seminar report, ppt, pdf for mechanical.
Mechanically shunt each gage within a bridge while observing its electrical. For a given wire gage of a material, the higher the resistance, the higher the sensitivity. The strain gauges i have used were completed load cell assemblies, either 350 ohms or ohms. Strain gauges are usually installed on a surface whether it is for stress analyses or sensor production, without any external forces applied to the surface. A strain gauge sensor is a thin waferlike device that can be attached to a variety of materials to measure applied strain. Bonded electrical resistance strain gages springerlink. The most commonly used strain gauge is an electrical resistance strain gauge.
Login for those who have not completed hp support registration if this is your first time to visit or if you have not completed hp support registration, please continue by clicking on the button below. R g resistance of gauge before application of stress. An illustration of arthur ruges original electrical resistance strain gauge from a us patent he filed in september 1939. The gauge factor for metallic strain gauges is typically around 2. Strain gauge and nominal resistance all about circuits. This strain change in dimension changes the resistance of the strain gauge which can be measured using a wheat stone bridge.
The special alloys used in strain gauges exhibit a nearlinear ratio between their resistive and mechanical strains. Strain gauge theory types, formulas and applications. Pdf the research work is on the design, construction and testing of a quarter bridge strain. A strain gauge is a sensor used to measure the strain of an object. A strain gauge is a long length of conductor arranged in a zigzag pattern on a membrane. Experimental stress analysis esa is the analysis of the mechanical stress state in materials, which is performed though experiments using strain gauge measurements. It is another type of transducer which is used in various places in analytics of stress and strain. Explain the construction of wire wound strain gauges. The configurations that strain gauges can be used in are, quarter bridge is the most common strain gauge configuration. From the measured electrical resistance of the strain gauge, the amount of. Write a short note on bonded resistance strain gauges. The principle of the strain gauge is the piezoresistive effect, which means pressuresensitive resistance, or a resistance that changes value with applied pressure. The electrical resistance strain gauge is a resistance element which changes resistance when subject to strain. Hi, we have bought a chassis national instrument, a module ni 9237 strain gauge measurement with a dsub.
This ratio is known as the gauge factor and is approximately equal to 20 for foil. Successfully compensating for lead resistances hbm. The strain gauge foil is glued on the material, which will be tested using a specially adapted glue for strain gauges. A strain gauge is a passive transducer, that converts mechanical displacement into the change of resistance. Finally, lord kelvin employed a wheatstone bridge circuit to measure the resistance change. The strain gauges should have a low resistance temp. The strain gauge while there are several methods of measuring strain, the most common is with a strain gauge, a device whose electrical resistance varies in proportion to the amount of strain in the device.
Digital transducer electronics ad 104 as instrumentation for electrical measurement. It is difficult to bond a strain gauge to a bolt while measuring the tightening stress. A fundamental parameter of the strain gauge is its sensitivity to strain, expressed quantitatively as the gauge factor gf. We have a problem with the wiring of our strain gauges. Pdf design, construction and testing of a strain gauge instrument.
Similarly, when it is compressed, it gets shorter and broader, ultimately changing its resistance. Strain gauges electrical resistance and conductance. This change in resistance of the strain gauge becomes a measure of the extent to which the structure is strained and a measure of the applied force when calibrated. It consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. Certain backing and alloy combinations, along with special construction features, are designed as systems, and given gage series designations. Strain gauge working principle your electrical guide. The expressions are assuming that all gauges are subjected to the same strain. The mechanical strain experienced by the test specimen, and thus also by the strain gauge, gives rise to resistive strain of the gauge element. Basic principle of strain gauge when stress is applied to the metal conductor, its resistance changes owing to change in length and crosssectional area of the conductor. Study of the correlation between mechanical strain and electrical resistance in a strain gauge. What links here related changes upload file special pages permanent. It is a very fine metal grid which is cemented in paper base material on the surface of the any structural component to measure the surface normal strains in any desired direction.
Strain gage instrumentation vishay precision group. The electrical resistance strain gauge technique is based on measuring the variation in electrical resistance under gone by a strain gauge grid, which is bonded. The actual arrangement of your strain gauges will determine the type of strain you can measure and the output voltage change. When bearing mechanical elongation or contraction, most metals undergo a change in electric resistance. Strain gauges if a strip of conductive metal is stretched, it will become skinnier and longer, both changes resulting in an increase of electrical resistance endtoend. This recommendation deals with metallic resistance strain gauges of the type used for determining the mechanical properties of materials, for stress analysis of structures, and as sensing elements in a variety of measuring instruments see appendix a. With the 2wire circuit, the strain gauges and the amplifier are connected via two wires. The resistance of a strain gauge varies with applied force and, it converts parameters such as force, pressure, tension, weight, etc. A strain gauge is an electrical transducer which is used for measuring mechanical surface strain. The rest of the bridge as shown in figure 2 is completed inside the prosig p8000 system.
Jul 03, 20 semiconductor strain gauges depend on the piezoresistive effects of silicon or germanium and measure the change in resistance with stress as opposed to strain. When an electrical conductor is stretched within the limits of its elasticity such that it does not break or permanently deform, it will become narrower and longer, which increases its electrical resistance endtoend. A strain gauge works on the principle of electrical conductance and its dependence on the conductors geometry. Bonded electric resistance strain gauges with metallic measurement grids characteristics and testing conditions, vdevdi richtlinien, vol. In wire wound strain gauges, the change in resistance is due to. The resistance of a wire changes as a function of strain. Strain gauges wiring ni community national instruments. Strain measurement errors thermo fisher scientific.
Bottom pressure measurements in the northeast pacific pdf. The strain gauge has been in use for many years and is the fundamental sensing element for many types of sensors, including pressure sensors, load cells, torque sensors, position sensors, etc. The current paper describes a destructive, sectioning method for measuring residual stress in welded panels, using electric strain gauges. This is a property common to all conductors, some more than others. A fsis memorandum totechnical files, matching cryogenic strain gages, dated. It is well known that stress forceunit area and strain elongation or compressionunit length in a member or portion of any object under pressure is directly. Strain gages are available commercially with the most common nominal resistance values of 120. Also explore the seminar topics paper on strain gauge with abstract or synopsis, documentation on advantages and disadvantages, base paper presentation slides for ieee final year mechanical engineering me or production automobile students for the year 2019 2020. Straingaugebased measurements of ice loads on ships. Strain gauge project introduction the strain gauge was implemented by edward e.
The resistance of a strain gage is defined as the electrical resistance measured between the two metal ribbons or contact areas intended for the connection of measurement cables. When it is stretched, its resistance increases and vice versa. L is the change in length,l is the original length. Electricalresistance strain gauge archives 911 electronic. When external forces are applied to a stationary object, stress and strain. Its principle is based on fact that the resistance of a wire increases with increasing strain and decreases with decreasing strain, as first reported by lord kelvin in 1856. A strain gauge also spelled strain gage is a device used to measure strain on an object. Other articles where resistance strain gauge is discussed. The resistance strain gauge is a valuable tool in the field of experimental stress analysis. Highly sensitive skinmountable strain gauges based. When external forces are applied to a stationary object, stress and strain are the result. Performance characteristics of metallic resistance strain. The gauge is far more sensitive to strain in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction.
The markings outside the active area help to align the gauge during installation. Gauge factor is defined as the ratio of fractional cha nge in electrical resistance to the fractional change in length strain. January 27, 2016 comparing strain gage measurements to force calculations in a simple cantilever beam 5 p a g e mqp, hazel eq 3 where the stress vector is now equal to the normal and sheer stress components. Sep 08, 2008 when using a wheatstone bridge constructed of four strain gauges, it is possible to attach the four gauges in a fashion to remove the changes in resistance caused by temperature variation. The change in resistance measured by a single strain gauge is extremely small, around 0. Therefore, if we replace r4 in figure 3 with an active strain gauge, any changes in the strain gauge resistance will unbalance the bridge and produce a nonzero output voltage. Electrical resistance strain gauges are the most frequently used devices in experimental stress analysis today. Whenever a conductor is stretched within the limits of its elasticity, it doesnt break but, gets narrower and longer. This article provides an instruction on how to install and use the 1lb1120zw strain gauge from hbm.
Strain gauge working, types, diagram, applications. Foil strain gages are usually made by a printedcircuit process. Strain gages are used to measure linear strains that occur at surface points of an object when it responds to some actuating load, as shown in figure 1. Hbm strain gauges are available with 120 ohm, 350 ohm, 700 ohm or ohm resistance. Introduction to strain gauges and their usage strain gauge applications strain gauges are used to determine or verify component or structure stresses, or by manufacturers of load cells, pressure and torque transducers, etc. Thus, in order to use it to determine strain, compensation has to be made for temperature effects. The nominal resistance value is the typical value, usually pulseminus a very small tolerance. Pdf electric strain gauge measurement of residual stress in. Learn the existing types of stress, their origin and states, or how to determine stress from measured strains by reading about it below. Experimental stress analysis esa using strain gauges hbm.
If the nominal resistance of the strain gauge is designated as rg, then the straininduced change in resistance. For example, if a positive tensile strain is applied to gauges 1 and 3, and a negative compressive strain to gauges 2 and 4, the total strain would be 4 times the strain on one gauge. If you are buyingusing just the strain gauge elements, you should provide a method of nulling out any off load errors due to the small differences in. In general, if we define n as the number of active gauges in the wb, n1 for a quarter bridge, n2 for a half bridge and n4 for a full bridge. Conversely, if a strip of conductive metal is placed under compressive force without buckling, it will broaden and shorten.
Figure 1 resistive strain gage with electrical leads on the right side in the laboratory we will be using a strain gage that is glued to an aluminum band. The majority of strain gauges are foil types, available in a wide choice of shapes and sizes to suit a. The electrical resistance of a strain gage is directly related to its sensitivity. You watch the red crosshairs move on the scale as the crack widens. The relationship between resistance change and strain in the foil or wire used in straingage construction can be expressed as or k 17. The strain gauge is bonded to a thin backing carrier, which is attached directly to the load cell enabling the strain of the load cell to be experienced by the strain gauge. Derive the expression for the gauge factor of a strain gauge. Photoelectric strain gauge the photoelectric gauge uses a light beam, two fine gratings, and a photocell detector to generate an electrical current that is proportional to strain. For this, strain gauges of very small size are connected to structural members, linkages and so on. A wire strain gage is made by a resistor, usually in metal foil form, bonded on an elastic backing. Historical development lord kelvin in 1856 first reported on the relationship bw strain and the resistance of wire conductors. Ly4 have one measuring grid and measure the strain in one direction t rosettes e. A micromeasurements strain gage is an inherently precise measurement device.
Typical applications for this strain gauge type include analysis of a biaxial stress state with known principal directions as well as measurements on tension and compression bars. The strain gauge is a classic example of a piezoresistive element. Explain with diagrams, the bonded and unbonded type of strain gauges. Strain gauge electronic circuits and diagramselectronic.
The sensitivity factor of strain gauge is normally of the order of. Comparing strain gage measurements to force calculations. Since the foil used in a strain gage must be very fine or thin to have a sufficiently high electrical resistance usually between 60 and 350 ohms, it is difficult to handle. How is temperature affecting your strain measurement accuracy. This type of gauge is frequently employed as a sensor in transducers to measure load, torque, pressure and acceleration. Other types of strain gages are acoustic, capacitive, inductive, mechanical, optical, piezoresistive, and semiconductive. The strain gage applies this principle to strain measurement through the resistance change. The input and output relationship of the strain gauges can be expressed by the term gauge factor or gauge gradient, which is defined as the change in resistance r for the given value of applied strain materials used for the strain gauges. However, it will also change resistance when subject to a temperature change. Even with cables with lengths of few centimeters it is essential to allow for the cable resistance. The latter form of strain gauge is represented in the previous illustration.
Measurement and instrumentation objective questions part. The entire device is typically 10 mm long, with 16 or more parallel. Strain gauge pressure measurement instrumentation and. Therefore, the strain experienced by the test specimen is transferred directly to the strain gage, which responds with a linear change in electrical resistance.
Disadvantages of strain gauge archives instrumentation tools. Electrical resistance of any conductor is proportional to the ratio of length over crosssectional area r. The change of resistance is very small and it is usually measured using a wheatstone bridge circuit where a strain gauge is connected into the circuit with a combination of four active gauges for fullbridge, two gauges for halfbridge or a single gauge for the quarter bridge. Thus, our quarterbridge circuit as shown either with two or with three wires connecting the gauge to the bridge works as a thermometer just as well as it does a strain. Strain can be measured using various types of devices classified depending upon their.
Strain gauge and rosettes introduction a strain gauge is a device which is used to measure strain deformation on an object subjected to forces. This change in resistance of the conductor can be measured easily against the applied force using strain gauge. Study of the tensile strain and stress in different materials. Strain gauge factor derivation types of strain gauge. Strain gauges bonded metal foil strain gauges strain gauges bonded metal foil strain gauges use identical materials to wire strain gauges and are used today for most general purpose stress. Among strain gages, an electric resistance wire strain gage has the advantages of lower cost and being an established product. The nominal resistance is stated on each strain gauge package including the resistance tolerance per package. Automatic strain measurement is usually done with an electrical resistance strain gauge or gage. Performance characteristics of metallic resistance strain gauges 1. Pdf strain gauges and wheatstone bridges constitute the basic. An unfortunate characteristic of strain gauges is that of resistance change with changes in temperature. Those sensors have 3 wires red, white, black picture 1. Jan 03, 2018 strain gauge theory the strain gauges are based on the resistive properties of the metal.940 345 1586 1232 158 1473 964 1070 560 1582 1547 747 526 619 1252 1370 468 1211 344 611 1143 110 1012 962 1475 587 774 1468 1218 735 1401 1117